Knowledge for Development

Relevant publications


The SADC harmonized seed regulatory system: A review of national seed policy alignment processes in HASSP project countries

This paper was commissioned by the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network (FANRPAN) to examine the status and challenges in national seed policy and regulatory alignment processes in the context of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Harmonized Seed Regulatory System in Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. It investigates the progress and shortcomings of national alignment processes to date in the context of various factors that influence its success.  Authors: Centre for Applied Legal Research (CALR)  Publication: Centre for Applied Legal Research (CALR), Harare, Zimbabwe  Date: 2012http://www.fanrpan.org/documents/d01457/hassp_policy_study_20121122.pdf

18/11/2013


Challenges and opportunities for maize seed sector development in eastern Africa

The paper draws from a seed sector survey in four case-study countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda) to characterise their maize seed sector and its evolution. The study helps identify both country-specific and wider lessons for seed sector development and the associated policy implications.  Authors: Erenstein, O., Kassie, G.T. and Mwangi, W.  Publication: Paper presented at the 2011 Increasing Agricultural Productivity & Enhancing Food Security in Africa: New Challenges and Opportunities conference  Date: 2011http://addis2011.ifpri.info/files/2011/10/Paper_2B_Olaf-Ernestein.pdf

18/11/2013


Impacts of an improved seed policy environment in Eastern and Central Africa

Rationalisation and harmonisation of seed policies, laws, regulations and procedures in Eastern and Central Africa (ECA) has been the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa’s (ASARECA) longest initiative dating back to 1999. The Policy Analysis and Advocacy Programme (PAAP) evolved from the Eastern and Central Africa Programme for Agricultural Policy Analysis (ECAPAPA). The process involved national studies on key constraints and consultation on opportunities for improvements and dialogue between countries to reach common agreements. From 2002, individual countries have been modifying their policy environments to conform to the common agreements through review of policies, laws and regulations. This discussion paper documents achievements of seed harmonisation in ECA to date.  Authors: Waithaka, M., Nzuma, J., Kyotalimye, M.  and Nyachae, O.  Publication: ASARECA, Entebbe, Uganda  Date: 2011  http://www.asareca.org/sites/default/files/Impactsofanimprovedseedpolicyenvironment.pdf

18/11/2013


Seed production and training manual

To accelerate the realisation of food security, the Government of Sierra Leone has restructured the national seed industry to engage public-private partnerships in seed delivery. The aim of the partnerships are to engender competition among seed enterprises in the seed sector, for more efficient delivery of a wider range of improved crop varieties and planting materials. The goal is to develop a seed system which will be self-sustaining, profitable and capable of delivering the right type of seed at a competitive price. This manual serves as a reference training manual for technical staff and seed producers. It aims to develop the seed industry in Sierra Leone with a focus on the private sector.  Author: Delimini, L.  Publication: FAO/Germany Cooperative Programme for Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security  Date: 2012http://coin.fao.org/coin-static/cms/media/16/13666518481740/seed_enterprises_enhacement_and_development_project_in_sierra_leone_mission_1_report_.pdf

18/11/2013


The political economy of Ethiopian cereal seed systems: State control, market liberalisation and decentralisation

This is part of the first phase of a collaborative research project of the Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Theme of the Future Agricultures Consortium (FAC). It presents the political and economic processes governing Ethiopian cereal seed systems by analysing the overall policy context, as well as the main interests driving seed policy formulation and implementation and the roles and interaction of the different public and private actors. It also examines how these interests and interactions are related to the performance of the system on the ground.  Author: Alemu, D.  Publication: Future Agricultures Working Paper 017  Date: 2011http://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/123456789/2342/FAC_Working_Paper_017.pdf?sequence=1

18/11/2013


Prospects and challenges of seed sector privatization

African countries embarked on privatisation of their seed industries in the 1980s as part of the structural adjustment programmes. Botswana, however, chose not to privatise its seed production services at that time. This paper examines the prospects and challenges for embarking on seed sector privatisation in developing countries using Botswana as a case study.  Author: Malope, P.  Publication: Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics 3(10), 504-513  Date: 2011http://www.academicjournals.org/JDae/PDF/Pdf2011/Sept/26%20Sept/Malope.pdf

18/11/2013


Seed policies and the right to food: enhancing agrobiodiversity, encouraging innovation

The professionalisation of breeding and its separation from farming leads to the emergence of a commercial seeds system, alongside farmers’ seeds systems through which farmers traditionally save, exchange and sell seeds, often informally. This shift has led to temporary monopoly privileges being granted to plant breeders and patent-holders through the tools of intellectual property, as a means to encourage research and innovation in plant breeding. In this process, however, the poorest farmers may become increasingly dependent on expensive inputs, creating the risk of indebtedness in the face of unstable incomes. This report explores how States could implement seed policies that contribute to the full realisation of human rights.  Author: Schutter, O. de  Publication: Background document to the report (A/64/170) presented at the 64th session of the UN General Assembly  Date: 2009http://www.keinpatent.de/uploads/media/seed_policies.pdf

18/11/2013


The impact of seed policy reforms and intellectual property rights on crop productivity in India

The growth of private investment in developing-country agriculture, new advances in the biological sciences, and rapid integration of developing countries into the global trading system has heightened interest in the topic of seed market and intellectual property rights’ (IPRs) policies among public policymakers, corporate decision-makers and other actors in the agricultural sector. Unanswered questions remain about whether emerging and evolving seed policy reforms and IPR regimes in developing countries will contribute to increasing crop productivity and improving food security. This paper attempts to answer some of these questions by focusing specifically on the case of India, the regional leader in implementing seed policy reforms and IPRs in agriculture.  Authors: Kolady, D.E., Spielman, D.J. and Cavalieri, A.  Publication: Journal of Agricultural Economics 63(2), 361-384  Date: 2012http://sap.einaudi.cornell.edu/sites/sap.einaudi.cornell.edu/files/seed%20policy%20reforms%20and%20crop%20productivity%20in%20India.PDF

18/11/2013


Demand characteristics for improved rice, cowpea, and maize seeds in Nigeria: Policy implications and knowledge gaps

Farmers in sub-Saharan Africa demonstrate diverse seed demand behaviour. One key goal in characterising Nigerian farmers’ seed demand is improving the public sector‘s ability to predict which of them are likely to adopt new and improved varieties in the foreseeable future given their agroecological and socio-economic situations.  This review focuses primarily on the demand for improved seeds of rice, cowpea, and maize.  Authors: Takeshima, H. Oyekale, A. Olatokun, S. and Salau, S.  Publication: Nigeria Strategy Support Program Working Paper 16  Date: 2010  http://dspace.cigilibrary.org/jspui/bitstream/123456789/31816/1/NSSP%20Working%20Paper%2016.pdf?1

18/11/2013


Research and development for tropical legumes: Towards a knowledge-based strategy

Based on existing research and development, this article argues that a successful strategy to raise productivity and incomes from grain legumes must contain several components including: the recognition that regional diversity requires a country-specific approach; institutional challenges are as important as technical challenges; and, that success requires institutional innovation in both access to input and output markets and research collaboration and a system approach.   Authors: Abate, T. and Orr, A.  Publication: Journal of SAT Agricultural Research 10  Date: 2012  http://oar.icrisat.org/6251/1/Research_development.pdf

18/11/2013