The increased international focus on expanding the production of biofuels has given countries the impetus to increase investments primarily to reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels and to mitigate climate change. The ACP countries have traditionally used biofuels but the efficiency and sustainability of their production systems are questionable. The decline in preferential markets for sugar and the need to diversify the industry to minimize the social displacement makes the production of sugar ethanol and other biofuels from a range of crops including cassava seem attractive. However, balancing food production, achieving food, nutrition and environmental sustainability, and producing biofuels at competitive prices for national and international markets will remain an elusive dream if the scientific and political community do not join forces in consultation with civil society. In this dossier, two EU and ACP scientists argue the pros and cons for the future of biofuels in ACP countries and provide insights into the options and strategies for making inroads in the biofuels market. The links to related websites and publications provide additional background material for the readers to examine the related issues and learn from international experiences to make informed decisions for crafting the future science and policy interventions that can benefit society in the global biofuel market.