Knowledge for Development

Relevant publications


ROBUSTMILK

The ‘ROBUSTMILK’ project gives guidance as to how selection for robustness in cows might be achieved to develop the dairy industry. There are good opportunities to achieve improvements both in milk quality traits (for milk and milk products as part of a healthy diet) and for a variety of traits that contribute to ‘robustness’. The partners in the project have shown that mid infra-red spectroscopy has potential for rapid phenotypic screening of relevant traits. Data can be interlinked on whole animal phenotypes from different locations, nationally and internationally. This will help as the costs of managing resources for whole animal phenotyping continue to rise.  (Advances in Animal Biosciences, 2013)

20/10/2014


Unravelling the role of innovation platforms in supporting co-evolution of innovation: Contributions and tensions in a smallholder dairy development programme

In this paper Catherine Kilelu and colleagues of Wageningen University, The Netherlands, conceptualise innovation platforms as intermediaries that connect the different actors in innovation systems in order to foster effective co-evolution. To illustrate their arguments the authors use a case study of a smallholder dairy development programme in Kenya, led by a consortium of five organisations that provide a platform for building multi-actor partnerships to enhance smallholder dairy productivity and improve livelihoods. They show that co-evolution of innovation is a highly dynamic process with various interactional tensions and unexpected effects, and that the distributed nature of intermediation is important in resolving some of these tensions emerging at different actor interfaces. However, platforms are not always able to adapt adequately to emerging issues. Mechanisms such as reflexive monitoring that strengthen feedback, learning and adaptive management in innovation processes are crucial.(Agricultural Systems, 2013 )

20/10/2014


Adoption and productivity of breeding technologies: evidence from US dairy farms

Adoption and associated profitability of advanced breeding technologies are analysed for US dairy farms. The correlation and selection associated with breeding technology adoption decisions is considered. The bivariate probit model with selection is used to model adoption decisions and least squares with extended correction terms is used for profit, productivity, and cost equations. Results show that more specialised farms with younger, more educated operators having longer planning horizons are more likely to adopt advanced breeding technologies. Artificial insemination positively impacted farm profit and negatively impacted cost of milk production, while advanced breeding technologies positively impacted milk produced per cow.   (AgBioForum, 2013)  

20/10/2014


Dynamic Changes in Dairy Technologies Uptake in the Kenya Highlands

Panel data collected from 874 farmers over 2 periods of time were used to analyse the dynamics of uptake of dairy technologies. This analysis suggests that large land holdings may be needed for continuous uptake, while smaller farms are able to keep improved cattle, but may not always be able to maintain the animals due to land and/or cash constraints. Formal milk marketing outlets have a positive effect on farmers’ decisions to keep improved cattle, and farmers in areas with fewer formal marketing outlets increase their level of inputs such as concentrates feeding, suggesting that the alternative channels offer more profitable returns. Farmers therefore seem to adjust rapidly to the changes in the marketing options and additional analysis is needed to better comprehend the relationship between market liberalisation and dairy intensification. (International Association ofAgricultural Economists Conference, 2006)

20/10/2014


Wireless sensor network for cattle monitoring system

This paper describes a cost-effective wireless sensor network (WSN) technology for monitoring the health of dairy cows. By monitoring and understanding the individual cow and herd behaviour, farmers can potentially identify the onset of illness, lameness or other undesirable health conditions. However, the WSN implementation needs to cope with various technical challenges before it can be suitably and routinely applied in cow management. This paper discusses results concerning data transportation (i.e. mobility) from the sensory devices mounted on the cow.   (Anforderungen an die Agrarinformatik durch Globalisierung und Klimaveränderung, 2009)

20/10/2014


Kenya Dairy Value Chain Overview

 In this publications of the Meridian Institute, key constraints in the dairy value chain are examined with a particular focus on the cattle dairy sector in Kenya. The overview highlights issues such as gender and market dynamics. The concluding section lists market inefficiencies and potential technological innovations. Technology options relate to animal health and disease (vaccine development and delivery, and curative dairy health); milk production (including genetics (artificial insemination), feed, fodder & water (dry season complications), milking machines and diversification (beyond staple dairy production), milk quality: testing & linked systems, milk preservation, sanitisation and transport (including cooling centres and linked system and packaging materials) and non-liquid dairy markets. Smallholder adoption of technology-based solutions often raises considerable challenges. (Meridian Institute, 2012)

20/10/2014


The impact of technological change in dairy farming: robotic milking systems and the changing role of the stockperson

It is claimed that automatic milking systems (AMS) improve the working conditions and lifestyle of the dairy farmer, as well as having economic advantages and benefits for cow health and welfare. This paper focuses on the relationship between AMS and the role of the stockperson. Although AMS reduces the need for labour in the milking parlour and in theory creates freedom and flexibility for the farmer, in practice farmers found their work routines changed rather than lessened. Ultimately, the role of the stockperson is still vital in maintaining and improving cow health and welfare when compared to conventional milking routines.   (Royal Agricultural Society of England Journal, 2012)

20/10/2014


Kivuguto traditional fermented milk and the dairy industry in Rwanda. A review

Traditional methods of fermenting milk involve indigenous microorganisms, leading to a variety of tastes in fermented milk products. Kivuguto is a fermented milk product, which is popular in Rwanda, produced by traditional spontaneous acidification of raw milk by a microflora present both on utensils and containers used for milk preservation and in the near environment of cattle. Thus, this method does not allow the shelf stability of the product. Modern dairies now produce fermented milk and other dairy products using exotic strains. The main objectives of this paper are firstly, to provide documentation on the traditional production of kivuguto, as well as its by-products, and secondly, to describe the current situation of the dairy industry in Rwanda.  (Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement, 2013)

20/10/2014


Challenges and benefits of adopting robotic milking on Michigan dairy farms

Automatic Milking Systems (AMS) were developed in Europe and introduced to the USA in 2000. There are currently 10 dairy farms in Michigan using robotic milking technology. This paper summarises the experiences of dairy farmers in the Upper Midwest with robotic milking technology. Information was gathered from interviews with dairy farmers using robotic milking systems, and other discussions with producers and industry personnel working with AMS.  The ability to milk 3 times per day without increasing labour and lower vet bills resulting from less mastitis were big advantages. However, maintenance costs and breakdowns in the setup phase were significant problems.   (Michigan Dairy Review, 2012)

20/10/2014


Infrared temperature patterns of cow’s body as an indicator for health control at precision cattle farming

An infrared radiation temperature study was carried out at an experimental cowshed (120 cows) using a thermal image scanner. The temperature distribution pattern was estimated and analysed with SmartView software: particularly udder, feet and areas with skin injuries. The radiation temperature of healthy udder did not change considerably after milking. Automatic monitoring of udder temperature is possible not only in milking parlours or milking robots but also elsewhere. The udder thermograms enable assessment of milking hygiene, as the cleanliness of udder surface influences average temperature. The temperature of legs was lowest at the hooves and highest at the coronary band. Temperature differences may be used for estimation of leg disorders. Thermal images can help detect skin injuries. Radiation temperature of injured and depilous locations was higher by several degrees than their surroundings.   (Agronomy Research, 2012)

20/10/2014


Use of encapsulated probiotics in dairy based foods

The viability of probiotic cells is crucial because to have their beneficial effects on health, they must stay alive until they reach their site of action. However, survivability of probiotic bacteria in dairy foods is problematic because of various physical and chemical factors. This has encouraged development of different innovative methods to improve probiotic cell viability in the product. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria is one of these and can be used to enhance and improve the viability during processing and also in gastrointestinal tract. However, the microencapsulation process and the chemical conditions prevailing in milk products and in human gut pose challenges. This review focuses on probiotics microencapsulation, encapsulation methods and coating materials utilised for probiotic encapsulation.   (International Journal of Food, Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences 3, 2013)

20/10/2014


Innovative trends in dairy and food products formulation

This lecture compendium on ‘Innovative trends in dairy and food products formulation’ includes topics such as functional foods, microencapsulation, advances in fermented milk products technology, enzymatic hydrolysis, technological innovations in the production of traditional Indian dairy products, preparation of symbiotic ice cream, advances in membrane processing for production of novel dairy ingredients, fortification of milk with minerals and vitamins and milk derived bioactive peptides – potential ingredients for food formulations. The compendium is published by the Centre of Advanced Faculty Training of the National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal (Haryana), India. (National Dairy Research Institute, India. 2012)

20/10/2014


Fermented Dairy Products: Starter Cultures and Potential Nutritional Benefits

Historically, milk fermentation processes involved unpredictable and slow souring of milk caused by the organisms inherently present in milk. However, modern microbiological processes allow production of different fermented milk products of higher nutritional value under controlled conditions. These products represent an important component of functional foods, and intense research efforts are under way to develop dairy products into which probiotic organisms are incorporated to make them more valuable. This article provides an overview of the different starter cultures and health benefits of fermented dairy products, which can be derived by the consumers through their regular intake.(Food and Nutrition Sciences 2, 2011)

20/10/2014


Efficient Innovation in Dairy Production - Empirical Findings for Germany

This empirical study investigates the dynamic linkages between innovation and efficiency at individual farm level, using a comprehensive dataset for dairy farms in Germany for 1995-2010. Based on a directional distance function framework, the changes in efficiency, technical change and productivity over the period are considered. Possible factors for technically efficient milk production at farm level are assessed before trying to identify those farms that are capable of translating investments in innovative technologies into actual efficiency gains over time applying a multinomial logit approach. Investments in innovative dairy technologies are only reflected in higher profitability if sufficient know-how for the efficient use of these innovations is available.  (GEWISOLA, 2012)

20/10/2014


Proceedings: Precision Dairy Conference and Expo, 2013

The full text of the Precision Dairy Conference is presented. Topics include robotic milking, parlour technology/feeding, automated calf feeders and sensors. The presentations consider how effective automation is in terms of saving labour costs, and how sensors can alert to cattle health problems and behaviour changes for more effective management.    (2013)

20/10/2014


The State Of The World’s Animal Genetic Resources For Food And Agriculture

This is the first global assessment of livestock biodiversity. Drawing on 169 Country Reports, it presents an analysis of the state of agricultural biodiversity in the livestock sector – origins and development, uses and values, distribution and exchange, risk status and threats – and of capacity to manage these resources – institutions, policies and legal frameworks, structured breeding activities and conservation programmes. Needs and challenges are assessed in the context of the forces driving change in livestock production systems, including information dairy cattle resources. Tools and methods to enhance the use and development of animal genetic resources are explored in sections on the state-of-the-art in characterisation, genetic improvement, economic evaluation and conservation.    (Food and Agriculture Organisation, 2007)

20/10/2014


Issues and challenges in improving dairy genetics for smallholders

The characteristics of small-holder dairy production system, in developing countries, and the bovine genetic resources encountered in such systems are considered. Genetic Improvement Practices and Programmes are discussed, along with requirements for success. Almost every country has had a livestock breeding programme of one form or another; performance of these programs has been variable, but very few have been successful over long term. In most cases, the scaling up ‘tipping point thresholds’ has not been achieved. The system and infrastructure for disseminating superior germplasm were generally missing. Institutional issues have been at the centre of failures of programmes. Modern technology offers a panel of new tools to make possible sustainable selection of local breeds through more cost-efficient performance recording, broader progeny testing and genomic selection.   (2012, World Bank)

20/10/2014


Fact Sheet: Mulato - An improved forage for the Caribbean

Mulato and Mulato II are improved grasses recently introduced into Trinidad and Tobago, and developed by the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) in Columbia.  In 2003, CARDI imported seeds of Mulato and initiated research, in collaboration with Nestlé and the Sugarcane Feeds Centre (SFC), of the Ministry of Food Production, at SFC’s field station to determine its suitability for local livestock production. Mulato and Mulato II are closely related to Tanner grass, the species most commonly used in local pasture systems, but show improvements in terms of dry matter yield, leaf to stem ratio, nutrient content, pest resistance and persistence. Mulato’s rooting system means it can withstand grazing and trampling by livestock and regrow after grazing. It is adaptable to acid infertile soils and drought conditions.   (Government of Trinidad and Tobago, 2013)

20/10/2014


Smallholder dairying in Malawi

An evaluation study examined “Optimising Smallholder Dairying in Malawi”. Lead farmers and extension workers were trained, who then trained other farmers. Exchange visits between Malawian and Scottish dairy experts were conducted. Scoping papers on performance recording, feeding and forage management, milk quality and breeding were developed to ensure sustainability of dairying and the projects activities. Milk rejection rates significantly reduced by 69% and 34% (mastitis and adulteration, respectively). However, milk sourness continued to increase. Training in forage management and feeding (especially legumes) has significantly improved the feed availability period from September/October to November, reducing the feed gap to less than a month. However, the project activities suffered due to low collaboration between the main actors.   (SRUC, 2011)

20/10/2014


World mapping of animal feeding systems in the dairy sector

This report provides a wealth of knowledge on animal feeding systems and is a valuable resource for the dairy sector and connected chain partners. It can be used both to compare and improve feeding systems that are already in use and for the development of new feeding systems. In addition, the report provides information that can be used: (i) to estimate the environmental impact of the livestock sector; (ii) to develop diets and feeding strategies to reduce the carbon footprint and to optimise milk composition; (iii) to enhance animal productivity, health and welfare; (iv) to increase the quality and safety of animal products; and (v) to improve economic sustainability of milk production. The report was compiled by three organisations (IDF, FAO and IFCN) each of which undertook a separate but complementary approach to map dairy feeding systems around the world.   (FAO, 10/2014)

27/11/2014