Knowledge for Development

Relevant publications


Backyard poultry keeping and poverty reduction in South Asia: Good practices and good returns

 A South Asia Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Programme, a joint initiative of the National Dairy Development Board of India and the FAO, has identified and documented a range of good practices along the poultry supply chain in Bangladesh, Bhutan and India, an agricultural sub-sector of great importance for most ACP countries. These include interventions related to the provision of inputs, management and improved husbandry practices, health service delivery and the marketing of live birds and eggs. This paper reviews and draws lessons out of 11 good practices on small‐scale poultry farming, documented by the programme in collaboration with a variety of public and private actors. The document attempts to identify gaps in the relevant policy and institutional framework to enable improvements in smallholder poultry rearing. (ILRI Clippings, 21/7/2011)

30/08/2011


Agribusiness and Innovation Systems in Africa

Edited by K. Larsen, R. Kim and F. Theus, World Bank Books, Washington, DC, USA, 2009This book examines how agricultural innovation arises in four African countries – Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda – through the lens of agribusiness, public policies, and specific value chains for food staples, high-value products, and livestock. Determinants of innovation are not viewed individually but within the context of a complex agricultural innovation system involving many actors and interactions. The volume is based on qualitative interviews with agribusiness representatives that were designed to shed light on their experiences on public policies that either enhances or impedes innovation in Africa’s agriculture sector. The chapter on Ghana specifically covers the poultry value chain.

15/10/2012


Enhancing backyard poultry enterprise performance in the Techiman area: a value chain analysis

C.K. Asem-Bansah, O. Sakyi-Dawson, E.E. Ackah-Nyamike, E.K.  Colecraft and G.S. MarquisAfrican Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 12, 1, 2012Backyard Poultry (BP) production is widespread among rural households in Ghana and provides an opportunity for small scale enterprise development to contribute to poverty alleviation. Traditionally, efforts to improve poultry production activities have emphasized the technical aspects of production while neglecting the social and organizational processes that underlie BP enterprises. A value chain framework was used to qualitatively assess BP enterprises in two communities in the Techiman Municipality of the Brong Ahafo Region in Ghana. Community key informants defined a BP enterprise as ownership of at least ten post-vulnerability-age chickens (defined as ability to roost on trees to escape predators and disease). All identified BP farmers in the communities were classified as ‘high’ and ‘low’ enterprise performers based on flock size of ‘post- vulnerability age chickens’. The study participants included a purposive sample of ‘low’ (n=10) and ‘high’ (n=10) performing BP farmers from each community as well as service providers and support institutions in the BP value chain identified through snowball sampling. Qualitative data were collected using focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Content analysis was used to summarize themes and patterns from the interview transcripts and to compare high and low performing BP enterprises based on the identified activities and relationships. Higher BP enterprise performance was associated with stronger inter- and intra-actor integration of activities in the various functions and higher investment of resources in the activities of the value chain. Additionally, opportunities for import substitution to meet the high national demand for chicken meat were identified. Sustainable improvements in the BP sector must involve social, relational, organizational, as well as technical innovation.

15/10/2012


Value chain analysis of the Kenyan poultry industry: The case of Kiambu, Kilifi, Vihiga, and Nakuru Districts

J.J. Okello, Z. Gitonga, J. Mutune, R.M. Okello, M. Afande and K.M. RichInternational Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) with the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and Royal Veterinary College (RVC), 2010The Kenyan poultry industry is characterized by two main production systems namely (i) the commercial hybrid poultry production system and (ii) the indigenous poultry production system. This study examines the poultry industry in Kenya with the aim of identifying the actors, assessing poultry and poultry product flows, and highlighting some of the policies and regulations relevant to potential outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The study was conducted in Kikuyu and Ndeiya. The study areas were selected based on their relative density of poultry populations. A value chain approach was employed that entailed the use of semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with various stakeholders including hatcheries, farmers, input sellers, processors, retailers and other intermediaries in four different value chains: commercial broilers, commercial layers/eggs, indigenous chicken, and guinea fowl/ducks.Our value chain analysis indicates significant heterogeneity in the types of chains present in the poultry sector in Kenya, both by chain and region. Layer and egg value chains tend to be significantly longer and more diffuse than the value chain for broilers and indigenous chickens. For broilers, shorter chains reflect greater integration among actors through contractual (formal and informal) arrangements, while for indigenous poultry, most non-subsistence trade involves direct sales between farmers and buyers (who include other farmers and retailers). There is also more ‘structure’ in the form of relational forms of transactions as products move into urban areas. In rural areas, by contrast, trade patterns are much more diffuse.

15/10/2012


Linking utilisation and conservation of indigenous chicken genetic resources to value chains

H.K. Bett, R.C. Bett, K.J. Peters, A.K. Kahi and W. BokelmannJournal of Animal Production Advances 2(1): 33-51, 2012Indigenous chicken (IC) is the most common type of chicken raised in most rural parts of Africa. The objective of this paper was to link utilisation and conservation of IC genetic resources to value chains. The study was carried out in three regions of Kenya, Western, South Rift and North Rift. Two counties were selected from each. Data was then collected by individual interviews using structured questionnaires from 1650 participants who consisted of producers, traders and consumers. Using the structure-conduct-performance model, this study was able to describe the whole indigenous chicken value chain. The Bivariate Tobit model was used to determine the linkages between utilization and conservation of genetic resources to market participation. Diseases and parasites, predators, price fluctuations and lack of market for products were the major constraints hindering productivity of indigenous chicken. Therefore, this hampered the performance of the value chain. Results also indicate that all the target variables influencing the farmer’s market participation were significant. These are age, education, and occupation of the household head. In addition, the total numbers of indigenous chicken owned and reared at the farm, distance to the main road, market price for the indigenous chicken products, production systems, access to market information, extension, preference for the indigenous chicken genotypes by farmers, and the preference for specific type of chicken and traits by the traders were significant.  In order to link farmers to high value markets, policy makers, stakeholders and Government need to improve the whole IC value chain through proper management in production, conservation and sustainable utilisation, promotion of infrastructural developments and strengthening poultry producers’ organisations to improve marketing.

15/10/2012


Commercialization of chicken production and marketing in the Central Corridor

Rural Livelihood Development Company, Tanzania, 2010.In its first phase, RLDC supported a project on Improved Production and Marketing of Poultry Products in Bupandagila and Mbiti villages in Bariadi District of Tanzania. The project served as a testing and demonstration by adapting the famous Bangladesh model into Tanzanian settings. The sector strategy proposed here is to some extent a replication strategy of the positive results of the Bariadi Model. RLDC wants to now replicate the model into a wider area in the Central Corridor, with the aim of improving local poultry products consumption as well as commercializing of the local poultry industry in the next five years. While consumption levels are already higher in the rural areas than in urban centre, RLDC anticipates that urban consumption will increase by at least 10% per annum if prices of local chicken will be closer to those of exotic breeds. At the productivity improvement level, the following two replication interventions will be devised, (1) creation of awareness to improved commercial chicken rearing as well as raising the interest of traders and communities for replication and, (2) after awareness has been created there will be actual introduction of improved commercial local chicken rearing with a view to attain high sustainability by providing basic training on improved commercial local chicken rearing for communities. With regard with the market development and advocacy, the project is intending to carry out the following three interventions, (1) organizing workshops for traders from regional and urban traders associations, (2) organizing topical workshops for traders of interested regional and urban traders associations on technical issues like improved transport, slaughtering and marketing of chickens, and (3) promoting establishment of a national chicken producers and traders association. The project was expected to reach a total of 8,100 households in about 135 villages in 9 districts of 6 regions in the Central Corridor and spend a total of Tshs 346.8 million over 18 months.  The project was launched and outputs will be published in 2012.

15/10/2012


Rural livelihood and biosecurity of smallholder poultry producers and poultry value chain. Gender and socio-economic impacts of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and its control in Siem Reap Province, Cambodia

S. Seng, Y. Samnol, L. Sok, K. Khemrin, U. Thol and E. GeerlingsFood and Agriculture Organisation, Rome, Italy, 2009Recently, Cambodia has faced the risk of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and is vulnerable to other animal diseases, including trans-boundary diseases, threatening economic losses to both national and rural economies, intensifying food insecurity and threatening  public health. Although Cambodia’s incidence of HPAI outbreaks was relatively low, its smallholder sectors have been significantly affected. There have also been human fatalities. However, with recent efforts, veterinary services have been improved; village animal health workers (VAHWs) have reported the occurrences of diseases from the community to the national level. This study examines the industry and practices in depth. Given the importance of poultry production in rural livelihood systems, farmers are committed to continue raising poultry, especially chickens for resource-poor farmers and ducks for middle income and better-off farmers. Protecting poultry production systems from the spread of HPAI requires multi-stakeholder involvement, with the government playing a vital role in imposing biosecurity-related measures.

15/10/2012


Nutritional Value of Sorghum for Poultry Feed In West Africa

S. IssaPhD Thesis, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA, 2009.A total of 2,840 1-d-old broiler chicks and 450 1-d-old layer chicks were used in three experiments to determine the nutritional value of corn- and sorghum-based diets in poultry reared in West Africa.  In the broiler experiments, birds fed corn had greater average daily gain (P < 0.001) with similar carcass weight and yield for birds fed corn-vs sorghum-based diets (P > 0.18).  Particle size treatments did not affect growth performance or carcass characteristics (P > 0.20). In the layer experiment, birds fed sorghum had greater body weight at d 126 (P < 0.001), started laying earlier (P < 0.01), ate more feed (P < 0.01), and produced more eggs (P < 0.01) than birds fed the corn-based diet. However, there was no difference in average egg weight among birds fed corn vs sorghum (P > 0.85).   In conclusion, sorghums produced in West Africa are a good alternative to corn when fed to broiler chicks and laying hens.

15/10/2012


Sorghum or Maize in West African Poultry Rations

T. Abdoulaye and J. SandersThe International Sorghum and Millet Collaborative Research Support Program (INTSORMIL CRSP), University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA. 2006In West Africa, feed and poultry producers rely on maize for the principal cereal in their rations. A common complaint about sorghum is that it has high tannin levels. Tannins affect nutritional value of grain by binding proteins and therefore making digestion difficult. So tannin levels are especially important in starter rations for chicks. Tannin also impedes digestion for adolescent and adult animals. This bulletin addresses the tannin issue by reviewing actual and potential sorghum cultivars for tannin levels in four countries, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and Senegal The feed sector is an important secondary market for cereal producers. But for a secondary market to function the prices in the primary market (food for sorghum) must fall. The second section of the paper will discuss how technological change in sorghum production can reduce the per unit cost of sorghum grain and thereby enable lower sorghum prices with farmers still making money. Even without a tannin problem the feed efficiency of sorghum is lower than that of maize but only slightly so. Therefore, besides the tannin levels, the bulletin will systematically review the relative prices over time and between regions of sorghum and maize to identify when and where there is an economic incentive to substitute sorghum for maize in poultry rations. When sorghum is too high priced to be used as a feed, it is generally because it is being extensively used in its primary market as a food. Programs to increase productivity and thereby reduce production costs to make sorghum more competitive as a feed, will also make sorghum cheaper as a food. Hence, concern with sorghum secondary market will also have nutritional benefits for people.

15/10/2012


The role of networks in information dissemination to family poultry farmers

E.F. GuèyeWorld's Poultry Science Journal 65: 115-124, 2009.Significant improvements in family poultry (FP), production systems can be achieved through programmes that endow FP farmers with necessary knowledge and skills. The setting-up of poultry networks that achieve that and also spread information research and development results in FP keeping in developing countries is discussed. To improve the efficiency of information dissemination, the socio-cultural and economic environments of targeted FP farmers are also explored.

15/10/2012


The Role of Information Networks along the Poultry Value Chain

E. Birol and M. Tiongco, Controlling Avian Flu and Protecting People’s Livelihoods in the Africa/Indonesia Region HPAI Research Brief No. 4, 2008.Mapping the flow of information along the poultry value chain is crucial for the identification of the actors to whom HPAI risks should be communicated. Network mapping exercises help to identify the different actors involved in the poultry value chain, and to understand their roles, linkages, and influence in communicating disease risk information. Consequently, network mapping exercises were conducted with participants of multi-stakeholder workshops held in Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya and Nigeria. The following questions were discussed: what formal and informal actors, private/public, are involved in the live poultry value chain?, what are the flows of goods between various actors?, how does communication on disease information flow in the value chain?, who in the value chain is influential in the communication of information about HPAI?, what should be improved to make the value chain more resilient against the effects of AI and AI scare? and where and how can project findings help inform decision making in the value chain? This brief highlights and summarizes the main findings of these network maps (Net-Maps). The Net-Maps were drawn based on the participants’ expert opinions as well as their experience with past interventions.

15/10/2012


Poultry value chains and HPAI in Ethiopia

G. Ayele and K.M. RichAfrica/Indonesia Team Working Paper 25, October 2010In order to improve local and global capacity for evidence-based decision-making on the control of HPAI (and other diseases with epidemic potential), which inevitably has major social and economic impacts, the UK Department for International Development (DFID) agreed to fund a collaborative, multidisciplinary HPAI research project for Southeast Asia and Africa. The specific purpose of the project is to aid decision-makers in developing evidence-based, pro-poor HPAI control measures at national and international levels. These control measures should not only be cost-effective and efficient in reducing disease risk, but also protect and enhance livelihoods, particularly those of smallholder producers in developing countries, who are and will remain the majority of livestock producers in these countries for some time to come.

15/10/2012


Analyses of the Poultry Value Chain and Its Linkages and Interactions with HPAI Risk Factors in Nigeria

J. Akinwumi, I. Okike, B. Bett, T. Fitz Randolph and K.M. RichControlling Avian Flu and Protecting People’s Livelihoods in Africa and Indonesia HPAI Research Brief No. 16, 2009.In Nigeria, peak HPAI outbreaks in February 2006 and February 2007 affected 3,057 farms and farmers; 1.3 million of the country’s 140 million birds were destroyed, and the Nigerian government paid US$5.4 million in compensation (FDL 2008). Still, policymakers may overlook some HPAI impacts, focusing upstream of the producer, whereas cumulative downstream (traders, slaughterhouses, retailers, casual employment and support services) impacts often dwarf those at the farm level. More significantly, the failure to capture these diverse impacts may have important implications for disease evolution and control that may accentuate its impact.

15/10/2012


Industrial livestock production and its impact on smallholders in developing countries

S. GuraConsultancy Report to the League for Pastoral Peoples and Endogenous Livestock Development, Germany, 2008Three quarters of the world’s chicken, two thirds of the milk, half of the eggs and one third of the pigs are produced from industrial breeding lines, i.e. genetically very similar animals bred for high output. This occurs mostly using concentrate feed and frequent chemical veterinary treatments, often on large farms that often are climate controlled, and with increasingly heavy “biosecurity” – measures controlling entrants to factory farms like personnel or visitors, feed, replacement animals - to prevent infections. The study describes industrialisation and technology of livestock production and its impact on smallholder producers, and discusses what should be done to improve their situation. Smallholder livestock farmers make up 70% of the world’s poor, and small-scale family farms hold the key to more productivity, environmental sustainability, and more employment.

15/10/2012


The feed resource base and its potentials for increased chicken production in Ethiopia

D. Tadelle, D. Nigusie, Y. Alemu and K.J. PetersEthiopian Agricultural Portal, 2007This paper describes the feed resource bases for the different chicken production systems and its utilisation potentials in Ethiopia. Past attempts made to improve, the production and productivity of birds through better utilisation of locally available feed resources are assessed. The merits and demerits of the different feed types through chemical and animal evaluation are reviewed. Finally, future areas of research on the available feed resource base and feeding of chicken are suggested to aid the rational utilisation of locally available feed resources.

15/10/2012


Quality of poultry feeds in East Africa. Interest of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the estimation of their composition

D. Bastianelli, E. Fermet-Quinet, C. Hervouet, S. Domenech, l. Bonnal and D. FriotWorld Poultry Science Association, French Poultry Research Days, St Malo, Brittany, 29-30 March 2005.A study on the quality of poultry feeds was performed on approximately 200 samples from 8 East African countries. The objective was to obtain reliable data on the chemical composition and nutritional value of feeds available, in order to promote discussions between breeders and feed manufacturers and to propose solutions for technical improvement of poultry production. This study also evaluated Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) as a simple, cheap and transferable analytical technique since it is not always possible to perform reference analyses locally.

15/10/2012


Poultry sector country review: Uganda

D.K. ByarugabaFood and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy, 2007This is a FAO resource document for those seeking information on the poultry sector at national level, regarding production, distribution, processing and marketing of live poultry and poultry products. The direct and indirect socio-cultural and economic impacts of disease outbreaks influence policy measures and disturb markets, causing the loss of assets. There are strong negative impacts on the livelihoods of rural communities for all producer groups including small holders. Assessment and guidance on measures along the poultry chain for a safe poultry production is therefore of great importance. Specific consideration should be given to strategies and measures that ensure a sustainable pro-poor supporting approach and development.

15/10/2012


An Analysis of the Broiler Supply Chain in Swaziland: A Case Study of the Manzini Region

M.B. MasukuAsian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 3(6): 492-499, 2011This study analyses survey data gathered in 2009 from contract and non-contract broiler farmers in the Manzini region of Swaziland. A descriptive research design was used in the study and data were collected using personal interviews. The same type of inputs was used in both production systems with the only difference being the quantity of inputs. Productivity is higher for contract farmers as they produce birds with an average weight of 1.8 kg in 5 weeks and also produce an average of 34,500 birds per batch. Consumers buy live birds mostly from non-contract farmers and buy processed birds from contracted farmers. Consumers pay more for a bird produced through the contract system than a bird produced through the non-contract system. On average birds produced under non-contract system cost consumers $34 whilst birds produced under the contract system are sold on weight basis and costs the consumers $26 per kg. Thus on average consumers pay E32.50 for a whole bird produced under the contract system. The cost of producing one bird is higher for non-contract farmers than is for contract farmers. With increasing competition and changes occurring in markets, producers need to understand and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the broiler supply chain. This will often require a combination of firm-level actions as well as improvements in the entire value-chain, particularly at the contractual level. There is also a need for political will by government to protect farmers by promoting competition through enacting competition legislation and allow transparency within the value chain.

15/10/2012


Executive Summary of the APEC ‘Value Chain for Poultry’

Pacific Basin Economic Council, Hong Kong, 1999.The objective of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Food System is to ensure the long term availability of food, at affordable prices, to all consumers.  . The poultry industry is an important food sector that has become increasingly sophisticated as the level of economic development has increased. The purpose of this study was to suggest ways to improve the efficiencies of the poultry value chain and to build sustainable competitive poultry industry. The recommendations contained in this report are based on best-management practices and are identified from reviews of the poultry industry from industry participants in several economies. This study examines six of the poultry value chain’s constituent links: logistics, finance, tariff and non-tariff barriers, production and processing, food safety, feed grain distribution and poultry transportation and distribution.  Recommendations are given for best management practices in logistical, financial, production and processing, food safety aspects. For example, non, semi and fully integrated markets are analysed in the financial sense.

15/10/2012


Family poultry and food security: research requirements in Science, Technology and socio-economics

E.B. SonaiyaAbstracts and Proceedings XXI World’s Poultry Congress, Montreal, Canada, August 20-24, 2000.Families use various but largely extensive management systems to take advantage of common village resources to produce poultry eggs and meat. Scientists and professionals interested in this endeavour have interacted for about a decade in a network – African Network for rural poultry development. The research agenda of this network gave priority to genetics, health and baseline data. It must give greater attention to natural and social sciences using indigenous knowledge and local conditions at the basis for participatory action research in health, management, feeding and reproduction. Natural products chemistry, population biology and process modelling expertise are required. Abilities in evaluation of resource utilisation and whole system optimisation that are built on a thorough understanding of the culture and society will be required to assure significant food security contributions from family poultry.

15/10/2012