Millennium Development Goal number one is to eradicate extreme hunger and reduce poverty by half by 2015. At the World Food Summit in 1996, 180 nations discussed ways to end hunger. Five years later, they met again to monitor progress. According to the State of Food Insecurity in the World 2006 report, today’s estimated 820 million undernourished people in developing countries represent a marginal reduction of three million as against the early nineties baseline of 823 million used by the Summit. There are significant disparities among regions; Asia and the Pacific and Latin America and the Caribbean have seen an overall reduction in both the number and prevalence of undernourished people. Sub-Saharan Africa is worse off. What can be done to meet the World Food Summit’s target? What role do Science and Technology play in achieving food security? What response is needed from policymakers? This dossier focuses attention to these questions. This dossier has been prepared by KIT (J. Sluijs) in collaboration with CTA (J.A. Francis) - September 2007.