Knowledge for Development

S&T Organisations / Web resources


Centre Européen d’Etudes sur les Polyphosphates (CEEP)

CEEP is the joint research association of the European detergent and industrial polyphosphates industry, sponsors research into phosphates and the environment and into phosphate recycling, and publishes SCOPE Newsletter. CEEP provides a forum for scientific research and the circulation of information concerning the impact of phosphates on the environment, their properties and the performance of polyphosphate products. CEEP has pioneered research on sustainable development through the recovery and recycling of phosphates from sewage and animal wastes. It has also developed studies concerning sewage treatment, eutrophication and life-cycle analysis.

1/06/2011


Global Phosphorus Research Initiative

The Global Phosphorus Research Initiative (GPRI) is a collaboration between independent research institutes in Europe, Australia and North America. The main objective of the GPRI is to facilitate quality interdisciplinary research on global phosphorus security for future food production. In addition to research, the GPRI also facilitates networking, dialogue and awareness raising among policy makers, industry, scientists and the community on the implications of global phosphorus scarcity and possible solutions.

1/06/2011


Phosphorus Behavior in the Environment

This website, written by Ron Wiederholt and Bridget Johnson and hosted at North Dakota State University, notes that while manure and commercial fertilizers contain the secondary nutrients and micronutrients essential for plant growth, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are the most important nutrients. It outlines some basic information about phosphorus and its interaction in the environment.

1/06/2011


Phosphate Recovery - National History Museum

The website is sponsored by CEEP (Centre Europeen d'Etudes des Polyphosphates, a sector group of CEFIC, the European Chemical Industry Council) with the intention of promoting a positive dialogue regarding the recovery and recycling of phosphates from sewage and animal wastes.

1/06/2011


Phosphate Facts

The Phosphate Forum of the Americas (PFA) was established in 1996 to provide a forum for information exchange on matters relating to inorganic phosphates. The PFA aims: to provide a forum for information exchange on scientific and technical matters relating to inorganic phosphate products; to sponsor activities aimed at gathering data and information relative to inorganic phosphorus-containing products, and assess the role of these activities in progressing toward a sustainable environment; to develop educational materials and programs related to inorganic phosphates and inorganic phosphorus-containing products and the environment; and to work toward mutually beneficial solutions to inorganic phosphate-related issues.

1/06/2011


European Fertilizer Manufacturers Association

The mission of the European Fertilizer Manufacturers Association is to identify, promote and manage the common interests of its members by: promoting the role of mineral fertilizers in European agriculture and horticulture; anticipating and preparing for upcoming issues that may affect the industry; being the industry’s spokesperson and sounding board; providing its members with a wide range of statistical information and studies.

1/06/2011


Fertecon Research Centre Limited

This is a website for consultants whose aim is to provide accurate, intelligent and relevant reports and forecasts to its clients in the global sulphur and phosphate industries.

1/06/2011


Thermphos International

Thermphos International is one of the world’s largest producers of phosphorus, phosphoric acid, phosphates, phosphonates and phosphorus derivatives. Its products are used in markets such as pharmaceuticals, hygiene, industrial and household cleaning, food and feed additives, beverages, flame retardants, crop protection, etc.

1/06/2011


The Fertilizer Society of South Africa

Presents key information on use of rock phosphate for direct soil application. Commercial mineral phosphates, collectively known as rock phosphate, belong to the broad category of apatite minerals and are mostly found in two forms in nature: igneous intrusions and sedimentary deposits. In order to be registered as a fertiliser source for direct application under Act 36, at least 20% of the total P in a rock phosphate has to be soluble in a solution of 2% citric acid. Igneous types of rock phosphate are virtually insoluble in 2% citric acid, let alone in the soil. Extensive research has conclusively shown that igneous rock phosphates make no contribution to plant growth.

1/06/2011


Phosphate Resources Limited

Phosphate Resources Limited (PRL) is a leading producer of phosphate rock in the South East Asian region. The Company’s key asset is a 100%-owned phosphate rock mine on Christmas Island, where it has mined and exported phosphate since 1990, and until recently exported approximately 700,000 tonnes of phosphate product each year to Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. Phosphate mining commenced on Christmas Island over one hundred years ago and PRL forms the modern day part of the deep mining heritage on the Island. The economic foundations of the Island have been built on phosphate mining and that situation remains the same today with PRL being the largest commercial employer in the region.

1/06/2011


SNB Phosphate Recovery

N.V. Slibverwerking Noord-Brabant (SNB) processes treatment sludge for its shareholders and for external clients. The SNB shareholders are Waterschap Aa en Maas, Waterschap Brabantse Delta, Waterschap De Dommel, Waterschap Rivierenland, Waterschap Regge en Dinkel and Waterschap Scheldestromen i.o. The incineration installation at the Moerdijk industrial estate processes more than 400,000 tons of sludge cake in four parallel incineration lines every year. The SNB sludge incineration installation is one of the largest and one of the most environmentally friendly in Europe. SNB wants its business operations to function as an example for other countries, society and the government. It guarantees continuity in sludge incineration, with maximum respect for people and the environment, at the lowest possible social cost. This website explains the options for the recovery of phosphate from waste water and the phosphate issue, globally and in the Netherlands.

1/06/2011


The Global Phosphate Forum

The Global Phosphate Forum is an industry association, bringing together manufacturers of detergent phosphates worldwide, to promote phosphates as a sustainable development solution for cleaning products.

1/06/2011


Western Sahara Resource Watch (WSRW)

The WSRW is an international network of organisations and activists researching and campaigning the companies working for Moroccan interests in occupied Western Sahara. This includes the export of phosphates. WSRW identifies the companies that are involved with the transportation, processing and the marketing of products that have their origin in the Bou Craa mines. The organisation states that UN resolutions support the conclusion that extracting and trading with phosphates from Western Sahara are contrary to international law.

1/06/2011


Apatite Mineral Data

This website provides overall chemical and geological information about apatite, a key source of phosphorus rock.

1/06/2011


World Rock Phosphate Producers

This website shows the locations of the world’s rock phosphate producers, and tabulates production data.

1/06/2011


Rocks for Crops: Agrominerals of sub-Saharan Africa

This University of Guelph website gives information on factors affecting agronomic performance of phosphate rocks (rock factors, soil factors, crop factors and management factors) and gives guidelines for PR use in direct application and alternative options for PR utilization. It also lists resources by country for this region.

1/06/2011


Mineral Photos - Phosphate Rock (Mineral Information Institute)

This website gives an overview of the use of phosphate rock. Large deposits of phosphate from igneous rock are found in Canada, Russia, and South Africa. Deep-sea exploration of the world’s oceans has revealed that there are large deposits of phosphates on the continental shelf and on seamounts in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Recovering these deposits, however, is still too expensive, so they remain untouched for now. In the USA, phosphate rock is mined in Florida, North Carolina, Utah and Idaho. Florida and North Carolina account for approximately 85% of phosphate rock production in the USA. US companies export large quantities of phosphate fertilizers all over the world. Phosphate rock is imported to the USA as well. Nearly all of these imports come from Morocco, a major supplier of phosphate rock to the world.

1/06/2011


Phosphate Rock Statistics and Information

This US Geological Service website gives market and other data on phosphate rock in relation to the USA and elsewhere. These include mineral industry and mineral commodity surveys. Special publications include a Data Set of World Phosphate Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences, a factsheet on Fertilizers - Sustaining Global Food Supplies, Historical Statistics for Mineral and Material Commodities in the United States and a Statistical Compendium for Phosphate Rock.

1/06/2011


Consensus Statement: Sustainable Phosphorus Summit

Participants in the 2011 Sustainable Phosphorus Summit Tempe, Arizona, USA, signed a statement that said “By closing the human phosphorus cycle and transforming wastes into resources and uncertainty into security, humanity can implement a “new alchemy” in which people become more secure and enjoy greater well-being in a healthy environment.”

1/06/2011


Use of Phosphorus and its resource availability (European Commission, Environment)

The DG Environment over the past years has been collecting information related to phosphorus (P) and its resource availability. Some 80% of phosphorus use is in agriculture, mainly as fertilizers. There are also industrial uses, but these are more marginal and the most important of them, use in detergents, is being phased out at least in the EU. The quantities used are also extremely important – between 120 and 170 million tonnes of phosphate rock every year for the last thirty years, equivalent to twenty to thirty million tonnes of phosphorus. Without phosphorus, crops do not reach full yield, and animals do not prosper. Low P levels in soils reduce crop yields by well over 50% (an important aspect of low crop yields in developing countries). There are numerous animal illnesses associated with inadequate P intake among which milk fever in high yielding cows. Lack of access to phosphorus (and other fertilisers) is one of the significant problems of agriculture in some areas.

1/06/2011


EcoSanRes (Ecological Sanitation Research) Programme

The EcoSanRes Programme, in collaboration with the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), is developing guidelines for the agricultural use of urine and faeces. The guidelines aim to educate ecological sanitation users about how to handle the urine and faeces in a safe and beneficial manner and thus promote the use of human excreta in agriculture. The use of human excreta as a fertilizer is beneficial from environmental, economic and social perspectives. Increasing crop yields through the use of sanitized urine and faeces is cost-effective (requiring only an investment in the ecosan toilet and secondary treatment system), and greater crop yields increase nutrition in the household and help to alleviate poverty. In addition, use of human excreta in agriculture aids in gender development, especially in households headed by women since these are often the poorest, by creating a possible source of income and improved nutrition. The guidelines are developed by gathering information from previously conducted experiments and comparing human excreta (as a fertilizer) to commercially produced chemical fertilizers. The guideline will be adapted to various climates and crops.

1/06/2011


Institute for Sustainable Futures University of Technology Sydney

The institute’s work in relation to minerals is outlined in Mineral Futures Discussion Paper: Sustainability Issues, Challenges and Opportunities which was prepared for CSIRO Minerals Down Under Flagship by the Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS & the Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining (Uni of Qld), Sydney, Australia. A further report on peak minerals in Australia was produced by the Institute in collaboration with Gavin Mudd from Monash University: Peak Minerals in Australia: a review of changing impacts and benefits.

1/06/2011


Phosphorus Depletion: Development Policy Review Network

Global reserves of phosphorus are running out and, since plants need phosphate to grow, this poses an enormous challenge for global food production in the foreseeable future. A shortage of phosphate could ultimately result in large-scale famine and social-political turmoil. Surprisingly, phosphorus depletion did not seem to be on the political agenda some time ago. In order to increase awareness of these problems, the Netherlands Water Partnership, WASTE and Plant Research International initiated a one-year DPRN process to place the issue on the Dutch and European political agendas.

1/06/2011


Phosphate Recovery: Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut WAR

This website aims to provide an information platform on the recycling of phosphates. Closing the phosphate cycle reduces consumption of phosphate rock resources and reduces energy consumption (greenhouse gas emissions). Phosphate is present in sewage (from human urine and excrement, food wastes, detergents …), animal wastes, and certain industrial waste streams (metallurgy, food industry …). Phosphate can be recycled by many routes: by using animal wastes or sewage biosolids to fertiliser agricultural land, use of sewage nutrients in biomass production, use of sewage sludge incineration ash as a raw material in the phosphate industry, precipitation of phosphates in sewage works or animal treatment (as struvite, calcium phosphates …). A majority of phosphates in sewage and animal wastes worldwide is already recycled through agricultural use of biosolids, but this is not feasible where waste streams exceed agricultural needs (intensive animal production, large cities, urban areas). A number of phosphate recovery installations are operational recycling phosphate from sewage into industry or as a mineral fertiliser. A wider development of P-recovery will require a combined movement of R&D and process development, water industry involvement and regulator pressure.

1/06/2011


BMBF/BMU Funding Programme: "Recycling management of plant nutrients, especially phosphorus"

The recovery of phosphorus (phosphate) from waste materials - especially from municipal waste water and sewage sludge as well as from further applicable secondary raw materials - takes centre stage of the shared funding programme. Because a lot of the considered feed materials contain in addition to phosphorus further plant nutrients as e.g. nitrogen, potassium, magnesium as well as micro nutrients projects are recommended which aim also the recovery of these plant nutrients. As an example for feed materials, which contain significant amounts of phosphate and further plant nutrients, shall be mentioned: municipal waste water, sewage sludge and ashes of sewage sludge incineration, meat and bone meal, meat pulp as well as waste of slaughterhouses, surplus liquid manure, chicken faeces and dung, food wastes as well as waste of the food industry. The produced materials for the fertiliser industry have to fulfil the following conditions: the contained plant nutrients - especially phosphate - have to be sufficiently soluble to be taken up by the plant roots, the amount of pollutants, as e.g. heavy metals and (persistent) organic pollutants, shall definitely fall below the legal requirements for fertilisers and shall, if applied appropriately, not lead to an accumulation of pollutants in the ground, and the produced materials shall be used as fertiliser either alone without any further treatment or as a mixture. On the other hand they shall be suitable for the fertiliser industry as an intermediate product.

1/06/2011



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