Knowledge for Development

Relevant publications

Vulnerability of tropical Pacific fisheries and aquaculture to climate change

The Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) has released an e-book analysing the vulnerability of Pacific fisheries to climate change which includes contributions from 88 international scientists and fisheries specialists. The book was launched on the sidelines of the seventh Conference of the Pacific Community, which convened from 7 – 8 November 2011, in Noumea, New Caledonia. It predicts that ocean acidification and loss of important habitats, such as coral reefs, seagrass beds, mangroves and intertidal flats, will dramatically decrease the fish and shellfish that support many coastal communities. Communities are instead predicted to become more reliant on rich tuna resources. Freshwater fisheries are predicted to be 'winners' with the book outlining expected improvements in freshwater pond aquaculture. However, the publication notes that improved aquaculture will not be able to feed the rapidly increasing population.


The potential of nutrient-rich small fish species in aquaculture to improve human nutrition and health

This paper from the WorldFish Centre examines the potential of small fish in fighting hidden hunger. Small fish are a common food and an integral part of the everyday diets of many population groups in poor countries. These populations also suffer from undernutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies (the hidden hunger). Studies in rural Bangladesh and Cambodia showed that small fish made up 50–80% of total fish intake in the peak fish production season. Small fish are a preferred food, supplying multiple essential nutrients and with positive perceptions for nutrition, health and well-being. As many small fish species are eaten whole, they are particularly rich in calcium, and some are also rich in vitamin A, iron and zinc. In areas with fisheries resources and habitual fish intake, there is good scope to include micronutrient-rich small fish in agricultural policy and programmes, thereby increasing intakes which can lead to improved nutrition and health. (WorldFish Centre, 05/2012)


Opportunities for the development of the Pacific islands’ mariculture sector: report to the Secretariat of the Pacific Community

This overview report, compiled in November 2011 for the Secretariat of the Pacific Community, addresses opportunities for the development of the Pacific Islands’ mariculture sector in general terms. More specific analysis of opportunity in particular countries is presented in the five accompanying country reports (Cook Islands, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Republic of the Marshall Islands and Solomon Islands). One conclusion states: ‘Despite substantial efforts and large injections of research and development (R&D) finance, mariculture development in Pacific Island nations has been very limited. This is explained by the nature of mariculture, the manner in which mariculture has been promoted, and a range of more specific practical and economic constraints. Lessons have not been learned. In particular some R&D organisations and government fisheries departments have repeatedly promoted development trials without undertaking the most basic analysis of production and marketing costs. Risks have not been assessed, and there has been a failure to compare objectively mariculture with existing and other potential income generating activities. As a result many small communities have served as guinea pigs for the testing of ambitious, technically driven and in many cases naïve projects.’ (SPC, 3/2012)


Planting Trees to Eat Fish

This book by Wetland International draws on the experiences of four projects (in Indonesia, Kenya, Zambia/Malawi and Mali) that combined conservation and development goals. The four projects demonstrated – each in a different way – how improving livelihoods and conserving wetlands can go hand in hand. The book tells the story of the problems that the individual projects faced, and how they were addressed. In addition, there is a review of seven other wetland-based projects from around the world. (Wetland International, 5/2009)


Wealth, rights, and resilience: an agenda for governance reform in small-scale fisheries

The diversity of small-scale fisheries in developing countries means that context-specific assessments are required to understand and address shortcomings in their governance. This article, published in Development Policy Review (Volume 30, Issue 4, July 2012) contrasts three perspectives on governance reform focused alternately on wealth, rights and resilience, and argues that – far from being incompatible – these perspectives serve as useful counterweights to one another, and together can serve to guide policy responses. In order to better appreciate the diversity in governance contexts for small-scale fisheries, the authors put forward a simple analytical framework focused on stakeholder representation, distribution of power, and accountability, and then outlines principles for identifying and deliberating reform options among local stakeholders.


Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp

This book, authored by the Earth and Live Studies Division of the National Academy of Sciences, US provides a comprehensive summary of current knowledge about nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp and supporting nutritional science. This edition incorporates new material and significant updates to information in the 1993 edition. It also examines the practical aspects of feeding of fish and shrimp. Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp will be a key resource for everyone involved in aquaculture and for others responsible for the feeding and care of fish and shrimp. It will also aid scientists in developing new and improved approaches to satisfy the demands of the growing aquaculture industry.


Farming giant clams for the aquarium and seafood markets

Giant clams offer small holders throughout the Indo-Pacific with good prospects for commercial culture to satisfy their increasing dependence on the cash economy. Two species appear promising for an emerging village-based export industry in Solomon Islands. These species are Tridacna crocea, the preferred species for the aquarium market, and T. derasa, the species that has the best potential for the seafood market. In this paper (presented at the 2002 conference of the Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society), a bioeconomic model is used in a normative analysis to explore optimal-management strategies for village farmers producing these clams. The normative study provides a benchmark against which current practices can be evaluated.


Impacts of climate change and variability on fish value chains in Uganda

This study examines the vulnerability of fish production in Uganda, particularly as it relates to the predicted impacts from climate change, using the concept of the value chain. The value chain approach has been recommended as a useful tool to study specific challenges facing a sector resulting from various drivers of change, including climate. Critically, such analyses can reveal context-specific response strategies to enhance a sector. The specific purpose of the study was to identify current and potential impacts of climate change and corresponding adaptation strategies in fish value chains. The study builds upon information from earlier value chain analyses on fisheries and aquaculture production in Uganda to provide a more in-depth understanding of issues facing the fish industry.(WorldFish Centre Research report 2012-18, 6/2012)


Towards Marine Ecosystem-based Management in the Wider Caribbean

An approach that encompasses the human and natural dimensions of ecosystems is one that the Wider Caribbean Region knows it must adopt and implement, in order to ensure the sustainable use of the region's shared marine resources. This volume contributes towards that vision, bringing together the collective knowledge and experience of scholars and practitioners within the Caribbean region to begin the process of assembling a road map towards marine ecosystem-based management (EBM) for the region. It also serves a broader purpose of providing stakeholders and policy actors in each of the world's sixty-four Large Marine Ecosystems, with a comparative example of the challenges and information needs required to implement principled ocean governance generally and marine EBM in particular, at multiple levels. Additionally, the volume serves to supplement the training of graduate level students in the marine sciences by enhancing interdisciplinary understanding of challenges in implementing marine EBM.


More rapid and severe disease outbreaks for aquaculture at the tropics: implications for food security

Although disease is a major threat to aquaculture production, the underlying global epidemiological patterns are unknown. This research analysed disease outbreak severity across different latitudes in a diverse range of aquaculture systems. It found that disease at lower latitudes progresses more rapidly and results in higher cumulative mortality, in particular at early stages of development and in shellfish. Tropical countries suffer proportionally greater losses in aquaculture during disease outbreaks and have less time to mitigate losses. The authors believe that as the incidences of some infectious diseases may increase with climate change, adaptation strategies must consider global patterns in disease vulnerability of aquaculture.  (Journal of Applied Ecology, 5/12/2012)


Food and nutrition security of the Solomon Islands

This report published in 2013 by the WorldFish Centre is a literature review on food and nutrition security in Solomon Islands, based on data from surveys conducted by Solomon Islands National Statistical Office, as well as from national and international organisations working on the island. It presents baseline information before implementation of the CGIAR ‘Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems’ (AAS) such as food prices, nutritional status (maternal and child health), food diversity, gender inequity and food production interventions outlining the current food and nutrition situation (WorldFish Centre, 2013)


Report on ASARECA workshop on cage aquaculture and the environment

The report raises awareness of environmental issues, the consequences of ignoring these, and the tools available to incorporate cage aquaculture into more comprehensive lake management programmes., 31/03/2013)


Factors affecting access to and protection of aquaculture genetic resources

The study investigates how actors in the aquaculture sector access aquatic genetic material and protect innovations in breeding. It analyses how corporate strategies, technological developments, and international regulatory regimes affect these options., 03/2013)


Factors affecting access to and protection of aquaculture genetic resources

Actors in the aquaculture sector face emerging difficulties pertaining to affordable access to improved breeding material and technology, while also securing adequate funding for sustainable breeding programmes. Public ownership or support seems to be important measures to balance these objectives. This is particularly the case during the early phases of implementation and operation of applied aquaculture breeding programs. This study thus investigates how actors in the sector access aquatic genetic material and protect innovations in breeding. It analyses how corporate strategies, technological developments, and international regulatory regimes affect these options. (FNI, 03/2013) 


South African seaweed aquaculture: A sustainable development example for other African coastal countries

This review led by Albert O. Amosu of the University of the Western Cape, depicts the South African seaweed aquaculture industry. Seaweeds are one of  South Africa’s most important aquaculture products, constituting an important fish feed source and biomass for biofuel production. To mitigate for the  reliance on wild harvesting, the South African seaweed aquaculture industry has built many on-land integrated culture units (preferred method for the  industry). This growth has paralleled the rise of the abalone industry, and has been successful largely because of bilateral technology transfer and  innovation between commercial abalone farms and research institutions. The authors believe the successful development provides a template abroad to  help other countries further their aquaculture sector.   (African Journal of Agricultural Research, 11/2013)  


Small-scale fisheries governance and supply chain in the Ocean View fishing community, South Africa

In this case study of a fishing community in Ocean View, Cape Town, South Africa, researcher Moenieba Isaacs of the University of Western Cape, examines a snoek (Thyrsites atun) fishery that operates through a community supply chain and informal markets. It found that this small scale fishery operates much differently than that of the high value regulated species, and yet plays a significant role in the livelihoods of artisanal fishers and in the food security of poor households. The findings of this case study show the failures of existing policy frameworks to take into account these smaller supply chains and point to the implications for the implementation of the new small-scale fisheries policy in South Africa, notably regarding the role of certification.    The research article is part of a special feature of the Ecology and Society journal on The Recent History and Practice of Local Fisheries in a Globalizing World.    (Ecology and Society, Vol. 18, Iss. 4, 2013)   


Fish to 2030: Prospects for fisheries and aquaculture

This new joint report by World Bank, FAO, and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) on the prospect for fisheries and aquaculture shows that fish farming will provide close to two thirds of global food fish consumption by 2030. It estimates that catches from wild capture fisheries will level off while demand from an emerging global middle class will increase substantially. Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to see a per capitafish consumption decline of 1 % per year from 2010 to 2030 but, due to rapid population growth of 2.3 % in the same period, the region's total fish consumption will grow by 30 % overall. By 2030, 62 % of food fish will come from aquaculture with the fastest supply growth likely to come from tilapia, carp, and catfish. Threats from large-scale disease outbreaks in aquaculture and climate change-related impacts could dramatically alter this, and the potential of small scale aquaculture must be exploited.     (FAO and IFPRI, 05/02/2014)   


Fish aggregation devices: An analysis of use, profitability and shared governance in the Caribbean

A fishing trip analysis shows that catch and profitability are higher when public fish aggregation devices (FADs) are managed privately or by small groups and access to the aggregated fisheries resources is somewhat restricted. In partnership with Counterpart International, the Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism, the Dominica and St. Vincent and the Grenadines Fisheries Divisions and the Florida Sea Grant collected information from fishermen on their use of FADs that were deployed privately, by small groups or by the government. This allowed for a determination of governance arrangements that were most profitable and provided input to stakeholder meetings with FAD fishers to identify best practices for sustainably using and co-managing FADs. An engagement strategy that introduced an activity planner as a best practice to increase information sharing helped strengthen the rapport between government and fisheries stakeholders.   (CRFM, 07/10/2014)


Status and Trends of Caribbean Coral Reefs: 1970-2012

The report Status and Trends of Caribbean Coral Reefs: 1970-2012 is the most detailed and comprehensive study of its kind published to date and represents the work of 90 experts over the course of three years. It contains an analysis of more than 35,000 surveys conducted at 90 Caribbean locations since 1970, including studies of corals, seaweeds, grazing sea urchins and fish. The results show that the Caribbean corals have declined by more than 50% since the 1970s. But according to the authors, restoring parrotfish populations and improving other management strategies, such as protection from overfishing and excessive coastal pollution, could help the reefs recover and make them more resilient to future climate change impacts. This latest report was produced by the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN), the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).  Report:   (Caribbean Climate Blog, 07/2014)